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GLP-1 and PYY3-36 reduce high-fat food preference additively after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in diet-induced obese rats

      Highlights

      • RYGB progressively decreases HF food preference in diet-induced obese Wistar rats
      • RYGB increases meal-induced GLP-1 and PYY release in diet-induced obese Wistar rats
      • Acute systemic administration of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9 with the second-generation selective Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 increases HF food preference additively in RYGB-operated but not in sham-operated diet-induced obese Wistar rats

      Abstract

      Background

      Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) modifies various aspects of eating behavior in morbidly obese individuals to cause marked and lasting weight loss and improvements in metabolic health, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood.

      Objectives

      To assess the relative contributions of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (PYY3-36), whose circulating levels are enhanced by RYGB, in the reduced high-fat (HF) food preference that develops postoperatively.

      Setting

      University hospital, Würzburg, Germany.

      Methods

      HF diet–induced obese male Wistar rats underwent RYGB (n = 11) or sham (n = 7) surgeries and were subsequently maintained on a choice of low-fat (10% calories from fat) and HF (60% calories from fat) diets. From postoperative weeks 4 to 6, acute feeding studies were performed in which the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9 (30 μg/kg), the second-generation selective Y2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 (10 mg/kg), or a combination of both drugs was administered intraperitoneally.

      Results

      During the observational period weight, adiposity and total food intake were lower while postprandial plasma GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine levels were higher for RYGB-operated compared with sham-operated rats. There was a gradual shift in preference from HF to low-fat food in RYGB-operated rats by postoperative week 3. Single antagonist treatments had a relatively modest impact on HF food preference in rats from both surgical groups. However, dual antagonist treatment caused a striking increase in HF food preference specifically in RYGB-operated rats.

      Conclusions

      GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 reduce HF food preference additively after RYGB supporting the use of gut hormone combination strategies for healthier feeding behavior.

      Key words

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      Linked Article

      • Comment on: GLP-1 and PYY3-36 reduce high-fat food preference additively after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in diet-induced obese rats
        Surgery for Obesity and Related DiseasesVol. 15Issue 9
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          While many studies over the past several years have begun to unravel the mechanisms behind the ability for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) to elicit weight loss and metabolic improvement, it is yet unclear which aspects of the surgery lead to its therapeutic superiority to traditional lifestyle intervention (i.e., diet and exercise). While it is now accepted that gastric restriction is not a primary mechanism for RYGB’s effects on weight loss and ingestive behavior [1–3], it is important to understand the contribution of dietary composition and changes in macronutrient preference to the beneficial outcomes of the surgery.
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