Original article| Volume 15, ISSUE 10, P1675-1681, October 2019

Predictors and outcomes of bleed after sleeve gastrectomy: an analysis of the MBSAQIP data registry

Published:August 10, 2019DOI:


      • LSG is a safe procedure with a low morbidity and mortality
      • LSG leak rate was 0.6% in 175353 patients from 2015 to 2016
      • Bleed increases all complications, readmission, reoperation and mortality at 30 days
      • Staple line reinforcement and oversewing are the greatest protective factors for bleeding following LSG
      • Therapeutic anticoagulation is the greatest predictor of bleeding after LSG



      Bleeding after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an important complication associated with significant morbidity and a drastic increase in healthcare resources. Multiple strategies have been developed to minimize bleeding, including varying bougie size, line reinforcement, and intra-operative tranexamic acid. These techniques, however, have been implemented without a clear understanding of the pre-, intra-, and postoperative predictors of bleeding in patients undergoing SG.


      The purpose of this study was to examine predictors and outcomes associated with postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing LSG.


      The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement data registry.


      We identified Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement patients who underwent LSG in 2015 and 2016. Primary outcomes of interest include identifying the prevalence, impact, and predictors of bleeding in LSG patients. Our secondary outcomes of interest include characterizing overall complication rates in LSG patients. Univariate analysis of pre-, intra-, and postoperative variables was performed using Χ2 tests for categorical data and independent sample t test for continuous data. A nonparsimonious multivariable logistic regression model was then developed to determine predictive factors for development of postoperative bleed.


      A total of 175,353 patients underwent LSG from 2015 to 2016. The majority of patients were female (79.0%), with a mean age of 44.4 ± 12.0 years and a mean body mass index of 45.2 kg/m2 ± standard deviation of 7.9 kg/m2. A total of 1116 (.6%) patients had a postoperative bleed. Bleeding was associated with a mortality of 1.0% versus .1% among patients without bleeding. The mean operative time was 74.0 ± 36.6 minutes with a mean bougie size of 36.9 ± 2.9 Fr, and a mean pylorus distance of 4.80 ± 1.1 cm. Staple-line reinforcement was used in 67.8% of patients while 22.4% were oversewn. Bleeds were associated with a statistically significant increase in all complications, readmission, reoperation, and mortality rates at 30 days. The following statistically significant independent predictors of bleed after LSG were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis: bougie size, age, prior cardiac procedure, hypertension, renal insufficiency, therapeutic anticoagulation, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and operative length. Staple-line reinforcement, staple-line oversewing, and higher body mass index were found to be protective for bleed after adjusting for confounders and interactions. An increase in pylorus distance did show a signal toward a protective effect; however, this was not statistically significant.


      Bleeding after LSG is associated with increased complications, readmission and reoperation rates, and mortality at 30 days. Staple-line reinforcement techniques independently predict a lower risk of postoperative bleeding after LSG. Adoption of these techniques may therefore have an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality for patients who undergo LSG.

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