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Comment on: Improving perioperative and long-term outcomes for black patients through earlier and more enhanced access to metabolic and bariatric care

  • Essa M. Aleassa
    Affiliations
    Department of General Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio
    Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
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Published:February 05, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2021.01.039
      The continuing increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease coincides with the evolving obesity pandemic. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and an essential component of metabolic syndrome [
      • Hubert H.B.
      • Feinleib M.
      • McNamara P.M.
      • Castelli W.P.
      Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study.
      ]. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is established by the presence of central obesity and 2 of the following risk factors: elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, elevated triglyceride levels, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [
      • Alberti K.G.
      • Zimmet P.
      • Shaw J.
      Group IDFETFC
      The metabolic syndrome--a new worldwide definition.
      ]. Metabolic syndrome has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (relative risk: 1.78 and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58–2.00) and events [
      • Gami A.S.
      • Witt B.J.
      • Howard D.E.
      • Erwin P.J.
      • Gami L.A.
      • Somers V.K.
      • et al.
      Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
      ].
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