Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) is common among patients with obesity who undergo bariatric surgery. Although gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the most common bariatric operations performed in the United States, their long-term comparative effectiveness on GERD medication use is unknown.
To compare the long-term effectiveness of gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy on use of antireflux medication.
Setting: National cohort undergoing inpatient bariatric surgery.
This is a retrospective study of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2017. A difference-in-differences analysis was conducted to evaluate the differential change in antireflux medication use between groups before and after surgery.
A total of 16,640 patients underwent gastric bypass, and 26,724 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. Before surgery, GERD medication use was higher among patients who underwent gastric bypass (62.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.0%–63.7%) compared with patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (60.1%; 95% CI: 59.3%–60.9%). Five years after surgery, GERD medication use was lower in patients who underwent gastric bypass (47.8%; 95% CI: 46.3%–49.3%) compared with patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (53.7%; 95% CI: 50.5%–56.9%). The differential decrease from baseline GERD medication use was greater for patients who underwent gastric bypass at 2 years (–4.1 percentage points [pp]; 95% CI: –1.7 to –6.5 pp), 3 years (–4.3 pp; 95% CI: –1.6 to –7.0 pp), 4 years (–6.9 pp; 95% CI: –4.1 to –9.6 pp), and 5 years (–8.3 pp; 95% CI: –3.7 to 12.8 pp) after surgery.
Though use of antireflux medication decreased following both procedures, gastric bypass was associated with a greater reduction in antireflux medication use 5 years after surgery compared with sleeve gastrectomy. Understanding the long-term comparative effectiveness of these common bariatric operations may better inform treatment decisions among patients and surgeons.
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Published online: April 22, 2022
Accepted: April 17, 2022
Received: January 7, 2022
© 2022 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.